Healthcare consumes over 18% of the U.S. economy, a much higher percentage than other countries, which typically spend between 8 and 12% of their economy on healthcare. Despite this high spending, the U.S. does not rank number one in terms of healthcare quality. In fact, over the past 20 years, the U.S. has consistently ranked between eleven and thirteen among other countries.
The introduction of AI medicine brings an opportunity to improve both our cost and quality by reducing inefficiencies and availing prevention opportunities. AI Medicine can make it easier for medical professionals to diagnose patients earlier and deploy treatment more quickly and accurately to simultaneously reduce cost and improve quality.
However, for all these benefits to be realized fully, we must address the cybersecurity challenges associated with the expansion of this technology. Understanding how AI medicine works and its implications on data security is essential for any healthcare organization or individual interested in leveraging this technology.
What is the goal of AI Medicine expansion, and what cybersecurity challenges accompany it?
For most of its history, the U.S. healthcare system has been focused on acute events. When used in a medical context, acute refers to the sudden onset, rapid progression, and typically short duration of a disease or health condition. Acute conditions are usually severe and require urgent attention, but they often resolve relatively quickly through treatment or alone. Examples of acute conditions include a heart attack, appendicitis, or a broken bone. This term is often used in contrast to chronic conditions, which are long-lasting and persistent, such as diabetes or arthritis.
Chronic diseases typically persist over an extended period and are often slow to progress. Albeit some of these diseases cannot be avoided with prevention, many of these diseases can.
Legislation passed in the past decade has attempted to expand our focus on preventative care and wellness programs to reduce or delay the onset of the need for chronic disease intervention. Much of chronic diseases’ actionable data lies outside the scope of traditional healthcare systems. It is estimated more than 80% of this data exists outside the health system.
For AI Medicine to reach its goal for physicians and patients alike, it must be able to access data from wearable technologies like smartwatches, internet-of-things devices, and more. These devices can track electrocardiogram readings, sleep patterns, heart rate, and blood oxygen levels, all valuable information unavailable to physicians. Connecting to this information means accessing more de-centralized and diverse networks: more cloud computing, edge computing, IoT, Apple Watches, apps, etc. Connection brings an inherent risk due to the cloud computing infrastructure required – data privacy issues arise along with threats from malicious actors who may seek to manipulate the system or inject misinformation into AI models.
To address these risks and protect user data, healthcare organizations must invest in strong cybersecurity measures like encrypted storage, authentication protocols, and secure networks. However, the industry is starting to recognize that technology alone cannot solve this problem. Human factors, such as user behavior and decision-making, contribute to cybersecurity risks. To address this, an emerging cybersecurity approach called human-centered security focuses on creating user-friendly security solutions using AI tools to train and warn people about vulnerabilities in real time. Estimates suggest human errors may contribute to over 20% to 80% of all cybersecurity breaches.
Short-term Progress Confined to Certified Networks: How Cybersecurity and Interoperability Regulations Shape the Path of AI Medicine
The HIPAA and HITECH Acts are two U.S. laws enacted to ensure the security and protection of an individual’s healthcare information. HIPAA was implemented in 1996, while HITECH followed in 2009, further strengthening its enforcement by allowing State Attorney’s General to enforce penalties related to breaches. The HITECH Act also requires certain business associates of covered entities to comply with the regulations and mandates the implementation of data breach notification policies. Notification policies de-graded the violator’s brand and opened them up to customer litigation. As a result of these regulations, many companies choose to contract and centralize their activities to minimize any potential issues.
In 2016, the 21st Century Cures Act was signed into law, marking a major turning point in U.S. healthcare policy. This Act was designed to combat sluggish advancements in interoperability and information data blocking by mandating the development of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) to facilitate communication between health information networks. It also set up standards and regulations to ensure the efficacy of the data exchanges. The legislation created a counterbalance to cybersecurity policies by creating an atmosphere that encouraged hospitals, medical device manufacturers, and other healthcare stakeholders to explore potential opportunities for AI medicine while concurrently addressing cybersecurity challenges.
As healthcare technology continues to evolve, the interplay between cybersecurity and interoperability regulations remains a crucial consideration for stakeholders. In the short term, progress in AI medicine is largely confined to certified networks, shaped by the constraints and opportunities presented by these regulatory frameworks.
The ongoing balancing act between fostering innovation and ensuring the security of sensitive healthcare information will require a dynamic approach from policymakers and industry participants. By navigating this complex landscape, stakeholders can unlock the potential of AI medicine to revolutionize patient care while maintaining a solid commitment to privacy and data protection.
Examples of AI Applications in Healthcare and Their Potential Impact on Patients
AI applications in healthcare are transforming the industry, offering unprecedented precision and accuracy in various aspects of patient care. These innovations are revolutionizing areas such as imaging, precision medicine, robotics, augmented surgical planning, and administrative tasks.
- Imaging: AI-powered computer tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enable medical professionals to accurately identify tumors, lesions, and other abnormalities that may not be visible during a physical exam, leading to more effective diagnosis and treatment plans.
- Precision medicine: AI helps analyze patients’ genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors to provide personalized treatments tailored to their unique needs, improving outcomes and reducing potential side effects.
- Robotics: AI-driven surgical robots assist surgeons in performing complex procedures with greater precision and control, minimizing invasiveness and potentially reducing recovery times for patients.
- Augmented surgical planning: AI algorithms can analyze preoperative imaging data to create detailed surgical plans, allowing surgeons to better visualize and navigate the surgical field, ultimately leading to more successful operations.
- Administrative tasks: AI streamlines administrative processes by detecting fraud in billing systems, processing patient records, and analyzing vital signs data collected from wearables.This saves time and resources and enhances patient care by identifying potentially dangerous medications or enabling virtual care assistance.
By leveraging the power of AI and machine learning algorithms, healthcare professionals can deliver smarter, faster, and more efficient care decisions, ultimately improving patient outcomes and reducing costs associated with treatments or surgeries.
The Role of Medical Device Manufacturers, Developers, and Policymakers in Ensuring the Security of Patient Data
Medical device manufacturers, AI developers, hospitals, and policymakers will be vital in ensuring patient data security in AI-assisted healthcare. Manufacturers must design devices with secure networks and protocols and ensure regular updates and compliance with cybersecurity regulations. AI developers must create reliable, auditable, transparent models and adhere to ethical standards while clearly outlining responsibilities for collecting, processing, and protecting patient data. Policymakers must create laws and regulations that balance data privacy with collaboration among healthcare stakeholders, setting clear standards for device security and outlining penalties for violations.
The shared responsibility for cybersecurity risk management in medical devices has historically been ambiguous due to misaligned expectations and ill-defined guidance on security requirements. Additionally, there is a need to clarify who should bear the costs for these ongoing activities. According to a January 2022 article in Health IT Security, more than 50% of hospital-connected devices have vulnerabilities. While contracts for high-cost equipment, such as surgical robotics or radiation treatment planning systems, often clearly define costs and responsibilities, the same level of clarity is still lacking for less expensive devices. Sorting out these details is crucial for ensuring the security of all medical devices in healthcare settings.
The Protecting and Transforming Cyber Health Care (PATCH) Act of 2022, part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2023, addresses these issues by enhancing the FDA’s oversight of medical device cybersecurity and holding manufacturers accountable for developing products with appropriate security controls.
The PATCH Act requires manufacturers to design, develop, and maintain processes for updates and patches throughout a device’s lifecycle, with a focus on real-world alignment between manufacturers and providers. Additionally, the Act includes provisions for monitoring and identifying post-market vulnerabilities, developing coordinated vulnerability disclosure plans, and providing an accounting of all software contained in a device.
By collectively addressing these challenges, stakeholders in AI-assisted healthcare can ensure maximum benefits with minimal risk, prioritizing both patient safety and privacy. *
Balancing Innovation and Security: Final Thoughts on the Future of AI in Healthcare
As we have seen throughout this article, the introduction of AI medicine in healthcare brings a wealth of opportunities to improve patient care, reduce costs, and revolutionize the industry. However, these benefits come with significant cybersecurity challenges that must be addressed to fully realize the potential of this technology.
The interplay between cybersecurity and interoperability regulations will continue to shape the path of AI medicine in the short term. However, it is essential that policymakers and industry participants take a dynamic approach to balancing innovation and security to unlock the full potential of AI in healthcare.
Medical device manufacturers, developers, hospitals, and policymakers will all play a vital role in ensuring patient data security in AI-assisted healthcare. By working together, they can create secure networks, protocols, and models that adhere to ethical standards and comply with cybersecurity regulations. In doing so, they can ensure maximum benefits with minimal risk, prioritizing both patient safety and privacy.
In conclusion, while AI medicine has the potential to revolutionize the healthcare industry, its success depends on striking the right balance between innovation and security. By navigating this complex landscape and addressing the challenges that lie ahead, stakeholders can ensure that AI medicine delivers on its promise to transform patient care and improve outcomes for all.
Editor’s Note: James F. Jordan is a healthcare and life sciences expert. He is a Distinguished Service Professor of Health Care and Biotechnology at Carnegie Mellon University’s Heinz College, the President of StraTactic, the National Co-Chairman of the BIO Bootcamp, and the Founder of the Healthcare Data Center. He has published numerous articles and books on innovation, startups, intellectual property, and health systems.